Photograph: Kind courtesy Wikimedia Commons

‘Britain created Pakistan’

‘The creation of Pakistan was integral to Britain’s grand strategy.’

moncler outlet online ‘If they were to ever leave India, Britain’s military planners had made it clear that they needed to retain a foothold in the NWFP and Baluchistan because that would provide the means to retain control of Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, the UAE, Bahrain and Qatar.’ moncler outlet online

IMAGE: Lord Louis Mountbatten, the viceroy of India and his wife Lady Edwina Mountbatten flank Muslim League leader Mohammad Ali Jinnah at the viceroy’s house, now Rashtrapati Bhavan, April 9, 1947. Photograph: Keystone/Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Prasenjit K Basu is a Singapore moncler outlet based economist, formerly chief economist for Southeast Asia India at Credit Suisse First Boston, chief Asia economist at Daiwa Securities and global head of research at Maybank group.

moncler outlet uk Basu speaks to Aditi Phadnis about his latest book, Asia Reborn: A Continent Rises from the Ravages of Colonialism and War to a New Dynamism. moncler outlet uk

moncler sale outlet Your book is a modern economic and political history of the whole of Asia, told from an Asian perspective. Where do Pakistan and Afghanistan figure? moncler sale outlet

The creation of Pakistan was integral to Britain’s grand strategy.

If they buy moncler jackets were to ever leave India, Britain’s military planners had made it clear that they needed to retain a foothold in the NWFP (North West Frontier Province) and Baluchistan, because that would provide the means to retain control of Iran (where BP’s predecessor, the Anglo Persian Oil Company, owned oil reserves), Iraq (where a British puppet monarchy enabled tight British control of the Iraqi Petroleum Co.) and the potentially oil rich British protectorates of Kuwait, the Trucial States (now the UAE), Bahrain moncler outlet sale and Qatar.

moncler sale The problem for Britain was that the NWFP had elected Congress governments in both 1937 and 1946, and the NWFP delegation had entered the Constituent Assembly of India in December 1946 (defying the Muslim League’s call to boycott it). moncler sale

The sordid story of how Nehru caved into Dickie Mountbatten’s sly entreaties (with more than a little help from Edwina) to persuade Jawaharlal to agree to a referendum in the NWFP which Ghaffar Khan’s Khudai Khidmatgars boycotted is one of the tragedies of the period Moncler Outlet .

moncler outlet store Khan Market in Delhi is named for Ghaffar Khan. But that is little recompense for what happened to the Pathans on both sides of the Durand Line over the past 70 years. moncler outlet store

moncler jacket sale Badshah Khan himself was largely confined to Pakistani jails for the rest of his life, in order to ensure that the ISI could subvert the peaceable Khudai Khidmatgars and instead train vast cadres of jihadi terrorists first the mujahideen led by Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, then the Taliban and Haqqani network, and later Osama bin Laden’s Al Qaeda. moncler jacket sale

cheap moncler Pakistan remained a dominion until 1956, but duly followed its strategic destiny by joining moncler outlet online the Baghdad Pact and CENTO. cheap moncler

cheap moncler outlet Its first election was to monlcer down jackets be held in 1959, but it became clear by 1958 moncler mens jackets that ‘left cheap moncler sale wing’ and pro India parties like the ANP (Awami National party) in the NWFP, Mujib( ur Rehman)’s Awami League, the Jiye Sind led cheap moncler coats by G M Shah and Ghous Bux Bizenjo’s party in Baluchistan would win the election. cheap moncler outlet

moncler outlet jackets So a military coup was mounted by Ayub Khan in 1958, with the connivance of the Americans, who made a Faustian bargain with Pakistan’s army, allowing it to retain effective power in exchange for the US gaining access to British military bases in Pakistan such as the one Gary Powers took off from in Peshawar before his U cheap moncler outlet 2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union in 1960. moncler outlet jackets

IMAGE: Prime Minister Narendra D Modi pays tribute to the statue of Sri Aurobindo at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, April 11, 2015. cheap moncler Photograph: MEAIndia/Flickr

One of your theories is that the parts of Asia that were ruled by Japan (Taiwan, Korea, Manchuria and coastal China including Hong Kong) are the most prosperous today, while the parts that were ruled by Britain the longest (Bangladesh, Bengal, Odisha, Bihar, eastern UP, coastal Andhra) are the poorest.

But there were enclaves which were ruled by other Western powers like France and Portugal, which are not too badly off, relatively.

The prosperity of Japanese ruled parts of Asia isn’t a theory, it is just a fact .

moncler factory outlet The CIA acknowledged in 1950 that Manchuria and Taiwan (respectively controlled and ruled by Japan for 40 and 50 years) were by far the most prosperous parts of Asia at the time (other than Japan itself). moncler factory outlet

cheap moncler jackets The only parts of China today that are industrialised are precisely those that Japan ruled. cheap moncler jackets

And because Japan ruled all of coastal China, the Western powers gave up their century long treaty port rights in 1943, facilitating the genuine independence of China cheap moncler jackets after the war.

Similarly the parts of Asia ruled by Britain the longest are poorest, partly because they were looted more thoroughly, and subsequent investments were minimal in those areas which also experienced the horrific famine of 1943 44.

cheap moncler jackets sale The French and Portuguese enclaves in India were tiny, and moncler sale outlet so cannot be compared with the rest of India. cheap moncler jackets sale

moncler outlet sale The parts of moncler sale Asia that the Portuguese ruled (East Timor, Macau, Goa, and 150 years each in Ceylon and Malacca in Malaysia) left no visible imprint of industrialisation, although Goa and Macau developed tourism sectors (mainly after the Portuguese had left Goa, and based on gambling in Macao). moncler outlet sale

Pondicherry benefitted from the influence of the Hindu sage Sri Aurobindo, who was one of the leaders of the often violent nationalist response to the first partition of Bengal.

moncler jackets outlet French ruled Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia were noticeably less industrialised than the Japanese ruled parts of Asia in the first half of the 20th century. moncler jackets outlet

cheap moncler coats Agrarian reform in the Japanese ruled areas also delivered agricultural prosperity there, in stark contrast to the rural poverty that pervaded European ruled Asia. cheap moncler coats

IMAGE: Indian bicycle troops in Somme, France, during World War I. Photograph: Kind courtesy Wikimedia Commons.

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